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List of writers in this page with thier works.

  1. Kazi Nazrul Islam
  2. Begum Rokeya
  3. Bonkim Chandra Chottopadhay
  4. Humayon Azad
  5. Humayon Ahmed
  6. Jahanara Imam
  7. Jahir Raihan
  8. Jashim Uddin
  9. Kaykobad
  10. Michael Madhusudon Dutt
  11. Mir Musharraf Hossain
  12. Rabindranath Tagore.

Bangla writers

  • Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bengali: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম Kazi Nozrul Islam) (1899–1976)

Rebel poet

Young Nazrul

Nazrul left the army in 1920 and settled in Calcutta, which was then the Cultural capital of India (it had ceased to be the political capital in 1911).[6] He joined the staff of the “Bangiya Mussalman Sahitya Samiti” ("Bengali Muslim Literary Society") and roomed at 32 College Street with colleagues. He published his first novel "Bandhan-hara" ("Freedom from bondage") in 1920, which he kept working on over the next seven years.[3] His first collection of poems included "Bodhan", "Shat-il-Arab", "Kheya-parer Tarani" and "Badal Prater Sharab" and received critical acclaim.[3]

Working at the literary society, Nazrul grew close to other young Muslim writers including Mohammad Mozammel Haq, Afzalul Haq, Kazi Abdul Wadud and Muhammad Shahidullah. He was a regular at clubs for Calcutta's writers, poets and intellectuals like the Gajendar Adda and the Bharatiya Adda. In October 1921, Nazrul went to Santiniketan with Muhammad Shahidullah and met Rabindranath Tagore. Despite many differences, Nazrul looked to Tagore as a mentor and the two remained in close association.[3] In 1921, Nazrul was engaged to be married to Nargis, the niece of a well-known Muslim publisher Ali Akbar Khan, in Daulatpur, Comilla. But on June 18, 1921—the day of the wedding—upon public insistence by Ali Akbar Khan that the term "Nazrul must reside in Daulatpur after marriage" be included in the marriage contract, Nazrul walked away from the ceremony.

Nazrul reached the peak of fame with the publication of "Bidrohi" in 1922, which remains his most famous work, winning admiration of India's literary classes by his description of the rebel whose impact is fierce and ruthless even as its spirit is deep:.[7]

I am the unutterable grief,
I am the trembling first touch of the virgin,
I am the throbbing tenderness of her first stolen kiss.
I am the fleeting glance of the veiled beloved,
I am her constant surreptitious gaze...

...

I am the burning volcano in the bosom of the earth,
I am the wild fire of the woods,
I am Hell's mad terrific sea of wrath!
I ride on the wings of lightning with joy and profundity,
I scatter misery and fear all around,
I bring earth-quakes on this world! “(8th stanza)” I am the rebel eternal,
I raise my head beyond this world,
High, ever erect and alone! “(Last stanza)”[8] (English translation by Kabir Choudhary)

Published in the "Bijli" (Thunder) magazine, the rebellious language and theme was popularly received, coinciding with the Non-cooperation movement — the first, mass nationalist campaign of civil disobedience against British rule.[3]

Nazrul explores a synthesis of different forces in a rebel, destroyer and preserver, expressing rage as well as beauty and sensitivity. Nazrul followed up by writing "Pralayollas" ("Destructive Euphoria"), and his first anthology of poems, the "Agniveena" ("Lyre of Fire") in 1922, which enjoyed astounding and far-reaching success. He also published his first volume of short stories, the "Byather Dan" ("Gift of Sorrow") and "Yugbani", an anthology of essays.

Revolutionary

Nazrul with his first son Bulbul; his wife Pramila seated right and his mother-in-law Giribala Devi seated left, behind whom stands Bulbul's nanny

Nazrul started a bi-weekly magazine, publishing the first "Dhumketu" (Comet) on August 12, 1922. Earning the moniker of the "rebel poet”, Nazrul also aroused the suspicion of British authorities.[2] A political poem published in "Dhumketu" in September 1922 led to a police raid on the magazine's office. Arrested, Nazrul entered a lengthy plea before the judge in the court.

I have been accused of sedition. That is why I am now confined in the prison. On the one side is the crown, on the other the flames of the comet. One is the king, sceptre in hand; the other Truth worth the mace of justice. To plead for me, the king of all kings, the judge of all judges, the eternal truth the living God... His laws emerged out of the realization of a universal truth about mankind. They are for and by a sovereign God. The king is supported by an infinitesimal creature; I by its eternal and indivisible Creator. I am a poet; I have been sent by God to express the unexpressed, to portray the unportrayed. It is God who is heard through the voice of the poet... My voice is but a medium for Truth, the message of God... I am the instrument of that eternal self-evident truth, an instrument that voices forth the message of the ever-true. I am an instrument of God. The instrument is not unbreakable, but who is there to break God?[9]

On April 14, 1923 he was transferred from the jail in Alipore to Hooghly in Kolkata, he began a 40-day fast to protest mistreatment by the British jail superintendent. Nazrul broke his fast more than a month later and was eventually released from prison in December 1923. Nazrul composed a large number of poems and songs during the period of imprisonment and many his works were banned in the 1920s by the British authorities.[3]

Kazi Nazrul Islam became a critic of the Khilafat struggle, condemning it as hollow, religious fundamentalism.[3] Nazrul's rebellious expression extended to rigid orthodoxy in the name of religion and politics.[10] Nazrul also criticised the Indian National Congress for not embracing outright political independence from the British Empire. He became active in encouraging people to agitate against British rule, and joined the Bengal state unit of the Congress party.[3] Nazrul also helped organise the Sramik Praja Swaraj Dal, a political party committed to national independence and the service of the peasant masses. On December 16, 1925 Nazrul started publishing the weekly "Langal”, with himself as chief editor.[3] The "Langal" was the mouthpiece of the Sramik Praja Swaraj Dal.

During his visit to Comilla in 1921, Nazrul met a young Hindu woman, Pramila Devi, with whom he fell in love and they married on April 25, 1924. Pramila belonged to the Brahmo Samaj, which criticised her marriage to a Muslim. Nazrul in turn was condemned by Muslim religious leaders and continued to face criticism for his personal life and professional works, which attacked social and religious dogma and intolerance. Despite controversy, Nazrul's popularity and reputation as the "rebel poet" rose significantly.[11][3]

Weary of struggles, I, the great rebel,
Shall rest in quiet only when I find
The sky and the air free of the piteous groans of the oppressed.
Only when the battle fields are cleared of jingling bloody sabres
Shall I, weary of struggles, rest in quiet,
I the great rebel.[8]

Mass music

Nazrul on a hunting trip with friends in Sundarpur, India

With his wife and young son Bulbul, Nazrul settled in Krishnanagar in 1926. His work began to transform as he wrote poetry and songs that articulated the aspirations of the downtrodden classes, a sphere of his work known as "mass music."[12] Nazrul assailed the socio-economic norms and political system that had brought upon misery. From his poem Daridro (Pain or Poverty):

O poverty, thou hast made me great.
Thou hast made me honoured like Christ
With his crown of thorns. Thou hast given me
Courage to reveal all. To thee I owe
My insolent, naked eyes and sharp tongue.
Thy curse has turned my violin to a sword...
O proud saint, thy terrible fire
Has rendered my heaven barren.
O my child, my darling one
I could not give thee even a drop of milk
No right have I to rejoice.
Poverty weeps within my doors forever
As my spouse and my child.
Who will play the flute?[13]

Kazi Nazrul Islam

In what his contemporaries regarded as one of his greatest flairs of creativity, Nazrul began composing the very first ghazals in Bengali, transforming a form of poetry written mainly in Persian and Urdu.[4] Nazrul for the first introduced Islam into the larger mainstream tradition of Bengali music. The first record of Islamic songs by Nazrul Islam was a commercial success and many gramophone companies showed interest in producing these. A significant impact of Nazrul's "Islamisation" of Bengali music was that it drew an audience amongst conservative Muslims, traditionally averse to music. Nazrul also composed a number of notable Shamasangeet, Bhajan and Kirtan, combining Hindu devotional music.[14] Arousing controversy and passions in his readers, Nazrul's ideas attained great popularity across India. In 1928, Nazrul began working as a lyricist, composer and music director for His Master's Voice Gramophone Company. The songs written and music composed by him were broadcast on radio stations across the country. He was also enlisted/attached with the Indian Broadcasting Company [15].

Nazrul professed faith in the belief in the equality of women — a view his contemporaries considered revolutionary.[16] From his poet Nari (Woman):

I don't see any difference
Between a man and woman
Whatever great or benevolent achievements
That are in this world
Half of that was by woman,
The other half by man. (Translated by Sajed Kamal[17])

His poetry retains long-standing notions of men and women in binary opposition to one another and does not affirm gender similarities and flexibility in the social structure:

Man has brought the burning, scorching heat of the sunny day;
Woman has brought peaceful night, soothing breeze and cloud.
Man comes with desert-thirst; woman provides the drink of honey.
Man ploughs the fertile land; woman sows crops in it turning it green.
Man ploughs, woman waters; that earth and water mixed together, brings about a harvest of golden paddy.[17]

However, Nazrul's poems strongly emphasise the confluence of the roles of both sexes and their equal importance to life. He stunned society with his poem "Barangana" ("Prostitute"), in which he addresses a prostitute as "mother".[18] Nazrul accepts the prostitute as a human being, reasoning that this person was breast-fed by a noble woman and belonging to the race of "mothers and sisters"; he assails society's negative notions of prostitutes.[19]

Who calls you a prostitute, mother?
Who spits at you?
Perhaps you were suckled by someone
as chaste as Seeta.
....
And if the son of an unchaste mother is 'illegitimate',
so is the son of an unchaste father.
("Barangana" ("Prostitute") Translated by Sajed Kamal[20])

Nazrul was an advocate of the emancipation of women; both traditional and non-traditional women were portrayed by him with utmost sincerity.[21] Nazrul's songs are collectively called as Nazrul geeti.


Begum Rokeya (Roquia Sakhawat Hussain) Bangla: (বেগম রোকেয়া), (1880–1932), author and social worker.

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (Bengali: বঙ্কিম চন্দ্র চট্টোপাধ্যায় Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) ('Chattopadhyay' in the original Bengali; 'Chatterjee' as spelt by the British) (1838-1894), poet, novelist, essayist and journalist

Fiction

  • Durgeshnondini (March 1865)
  • Kapalkundala (1866)
  • Mrinalini (1869)
  • Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree, 1873)
  • Indira (1873, revised 1893)
  • Jugalanguriya (1874)
  • Radharani (1876, enlarged 1893)
  • Chandrasekhar (1877)
  • Kamalakanter Daptar (From the Desk of Kamlakanta, 1875)
  • Rajni(1877)
  • Krishnakanter Uil (Krishnakanta's Will, 1878)
  • Rajsimha (1882)
  • Anandamath (1882)
  • Devi Chaudhurani (1884)
  • Kamalakanta (1885)
  • Sitaram (March 1887)
  • Muchiram Gurer Jivancharita (The Life of Muchiram Gur)

Religious Commentaries

  • Krishna Charitra (Life of Krishna, 1886)
  • Dharmatattva (Principles of Religion, 1888)
  • Devatattva (Principles of Divinity, Published Posthumously)
  • Srimadvagavat Gita, a Commentary on the Bhagavad Gita (1902 - Published Posthumously)

Poetry Collections

  • Lalita O Manas (1858)

Essays

  • Lok Rahasya (Essays on Society, 1874, enlarged 1888)
  • Bijnan Rahasya (Essays on Science, 1875)
  • Bichitra Prabandha (Assorted Essays), Vol 1 (1876) and Vol 2 (1892)
  • Samya (Equality, 1879)
      • This bibliography does not include any of his English works. Indeed his first novel was an English one and he also started writing his religious and philosophical essays in English.
Humayun Azad (Bangla: হুমায়ুন আজাদ) (1947-2004) writer and scholar

Poetry

  • Aloukik Ishtimar (1973)
  • Jolo Chitabagh (1980)
  • Shob Kichu Noshtoder Odhikare Jabe (1985)
  • Jotoi Gobhire Jai Modhu Jotoi Uporay Jai Neel (1987)
  • Ami Bachay Chilam Onnoder Shomoy (1990)
  • Humayun Azader Shreshtho Kobita (1993)
  • Adhunik Bangla Kobita (1994)
  • Kafone Mora Osrubindu (1998)
  • Kabya Shonggroho (1998)
  • Chosha boi (1999)

Fictions

  • Chappanno Hazar Borgomile (1994) OCLC 60043495
  • Shob Kichu Bhenge Pore (1995)
  • Manush Hishbe Amar Oporadhshomuho (1996)
  • Jadukorer Mrittu (1996)
  • Shuvobroto, Tar Shomporkito Shushomacher (1997)
  • Rajnitibidgon (1998)
  • Kobi Othoba Dondito Aupurush (1999)
  • Nijer Shongge Nijer Jiboner Modhu (2000)
  • Fali Fali Ko're Kata Chand (2001)
  • Uponnashshonggroho-Ak (Collection of Novels, Vol.1) (2001)
  • Sraboner Brishtite Roktojoba (2002)
  • Uponnashshonggroho-Dui (Collection of Novels, Vol.2) (2001)
  • Dosh Hazar Abong Aro Akti Dhorshon (2003)
  • Pak Sar Jamin Saad Baad (2003) ISBN 984-401-769-6
  • Ekti Khuner svapna (2004)

Criticism

  • Rabindraprobondho/Rashtro O Shomajchinta (1973)
  • Shamsur Rahman/Nishshonggo Sherpa (1983)
  • Shilpokolar Bimanikikoron O Onnanno Probondho (1988)
  • Bhasha-Andolon:Shahittik Potobhumi (1990)
  • Naari (1992) (banned between November 19,1995 and March 7,2000)
  • Protikkriashilotar Dirgho Chayar Niche (1992)
  • Nibir Nilima (1992)
  • Matal Torony (1992)
  • Norokay Anonto Hritu (1992)
  • Jolpai Ronger Andhokar (1992)
  • Shimaboddhotar Shutro (1993)
  • Adhar O Adhayo (1993)
  • Amar Abishshash (1997)
  • Parbotto Chattagram:Shobuj Paharer Bhetor Diye Probahito Hingshar Jhornadhara (1997)
  • Nirbachito Probondho (1999)
  • Mohabishsho (2000)
  • Ditio Lingo (originated from Simone The Bevour) (2001)
  • Amra Ki Ai Bangladesh Cheyechilam (2003)
  • Amar Notun Jonmo (2005)

Linguistics

  • Pronominalization in Bengali (1983)
  • Bangla Bhashar Shotrumitro (1983)
  • Bakkototto (1994)
  • Bangla Bhasha Vol.1 (1984)
  • Bangla Bhasha Vol.2 (1985)
  • Tulonamulok O Oitihashik Bhashabiggan (1988)
  • Arthobiggan (1999)

Teenage Literature

  • Lal Neel Dipaboli Ba Bangla Shahitter Jiboni
  • Fuler Gondhe Ghum Ashena (1985)
  • Koto Nodi Shorobor Ba Bangla Bhashar Jiboni (1987)ISBN 984-401-017-9
  • Abbuke Mone Pore (1989)ISBN 984-401-555-3
  • Bukpokete Jonakipoka (1993)
  • Amader Shohoray Akdol Debdut ( 1996)
  • Andhokaray Gondhoraj (2003)

Others

  • Humayun Azader Probochonguccho (1992)
  • Shakkhatkar (1994)
  • Attotayider Shonge Kothopokothon (1995)
  • Bohumatrik Jotirmoy (1997)
  • Rabindranath Thakurer Prothom Kobita ( 1997)
Humayun Ahmed (Bangla: হুমায়ূন আহেমদ) (born 1948), author and playwright

Selected novels

  • Lilaboti (2006)
  • Kobi (Poet)
  • Nondito Noroke (In A Blissful Hell)
  • Shongkhoneel Karagar
  • Mondroshoptok
  • Durey Kothay (Far Away)
  • Sourav (Fragrance)
  • Nee
  • Phera(Return)
  • Krishno Paksha (Dark Moon)
  • Saajghar(Dressing Room)
  • Bashor
  • Gouripur Junction (Gouripur Junction)
  • Nripoti (Emperor)(Drama)
  • Omanush (Inhuman)(Adaptation of Man on Fire (novel) by A. J. Quinnell)
  • Bohubrihi
  • Eishob Din Ratri (These days and nights)
  • Ashabori
  • Daruchini Dwip(Daruchini Island)
  • Shuvro
  • Nokhkhotrer Raat (Starry Night)
  • Nishithini
  • Amar Achhey Jol (I Have Tears)
  • Kothao Kew Nei (No One No where)
  • Aguner Parashmony (Philosopher stone of fire)
  • Srabon Megher Din
  • Akash Jora Megh
  • Mohapurush (Great Man)
  • Rupali Dwip(Silver Island)
  • Kalo Manus (Black man)
  • Ke Kotha Koy (Who's Talking)
  • Maddhanya (2007) (Noon)
  • Maddhanya 2 (2008) (Noon)
  • Eshtishon(Station)
  • The Exorcist (Adaptation of The Exorcist by William Peter Blatty, published from Sheba Prokashoni)
  • Moddhanya Akhanda (2008)
  • Tithir nil tualey (Tithi's blue towel)
  • Mrinmoyee
  • Mrinmoyeer mon valo nei
  • Noboni
  • Kuhurani
  • Aj chitrar biye (Today is Chita's marriage ceremony)
  • Tumi amay dekechile chutir nimontrone (When u invited me in the vacation)
  • Shedin choitromash (That was the month of choitro)
  • Prothom prohor
  • Opekkha (The waiting)
  • Oporanno (Afternoon)
  • Aj ami kuthao jabona (I will not go anywhere today)
  • Ondhokarer gan (Song of the dark)
  • Jokhon dube jabe purnimar chad
  • Chader aloy koyekjon jubok (Some young people in the moonlight)
  • Tetul bone juchona
  • Jodio shondha
  • Ai! Shuvro, Ai!
  • Onnodin
  • Tumake (To you)
  • Ononto ombore
  • Pakhi amar akla pakhi
  • Nil oporajita (Blue flower)
  • Dui duari
  • Brishti bilash
  • Nil manush (Blue man)
  • Jonom jonom
  • Jolpoddo
  • Jol juchona (Watery moonlight)
  • Shomudro bilash
  • Chaya shongi (Shade mate)
  • Megher chaya (Shade of clouds)
  • Priyotomeshu (Dear)
  • akjon mayaboti
  • Mirar gramer bari (Village of Mira)
  • Choitrer ditio dibosh (Second day of choitro)
  • Amar chelebela (My childhood days)
  • Kichu shoishob (Some childhood days)
  • Dekha odekha (Seen unseen)
  • Cheleta (That boy)
  • Lilua batash
  • Asmanira tin bun
  • Pencil a aka pori (A fairy drawn by pencil)
  • Uralponkhi

Books on liberation war

  • 1971
  • Aguner Parashmoni
  • Shyamal Chhaya
  • Anil Bagchir Ekdin
  • Jostnya O Jononeer Golpo (tr. The story of Mother and moonlit night)

Misir Ali books

Misir Ali, the character of Humayun Ahmed, a very intelligent lonely professor of Psychology at the University of Dhaka unveils secrets.

  • Debi
  • Nishithini
  • Nishad
  • Onish
  • Brihonnola
  • Bipod
  • Misir Alir Omimangshito Rohoshso
  • Ami Ebong Amra
  • Tandra Bilash
  • Ami e Misir Ali
  • Kohen Kobi Kalidash
  • Voy (Story collection)
  • Bagh-Bondi Misir Ali
  • Misir Ali'r Choshma (2008)
  • Misir Ali! Apni Kothai?(2009)

Himu Series

  • Moyurakkhi-(1990)
  • Darojar Opashe-(1992)
  • Himu-(1993)
  • Parapar-(1993)
  • Ebong Himu-(1995)
  • Himur Hatay Koyekti Nill Poddo-(1996)
  • Himur Ditiyo Prohor-(1997)
  • Himur Rupali Ratri-(1998)
  • Ekjon Himu Koekti Jhijhi Poka-(1999)
  • Tomader Ei Nogore-(2000)
  • Chole Jay Bosonter Din-(2002)
  • Shey Ashe Dhire-(2003)
  • Himu Mama-(2004)
  • Angool Kata Joglu-(2005)
  • Halud Himu Kalo RAB-(2006)
  • Aj Himur Biye-(2007)
  • Himu Rimande-(2008)
  • Himur Moddhodupur-(2009)

Comedy

  • Tara tin jon
  • Abaro tin jon

Science Fiction

  • Tomader Jonno Valobasa (Love For You All)
  • Anonto Nakhatrobithi
  • Fiha Sameekaran (Equation Fiha)
  • Erina
  • Kuhok (Enchantment)
  • Ema
  • Omega Point
  • Shunyo (Zero)
  • Onno Bhuban (The Other World)
  • Ditio Manob
  • Ahok (Collection)
  • Manobi

Supernatural

  • Advut Sob Golpo
  • Kalo Jadukar
  • Pipli Begum
  • Kani Daini
  • Kutu Miah
  • Poka (Insect)
  • Parul o tinti kukur
  • Nil hati
  • Bhoot bhutong bhutou
  • Mojar bhoot

Satire

  • Elebele (1990)
  • Elebele 2 (1990)

Scientific writings

  • Quantum Rosayon

Poems

  • Grehothagi Josna (Kakoli Prokasoni)

Collections

  • Five Novels of Nineteenseventies
  • Five Novels of Nineteeneighties
  • Five Novels of Nineteenninties
  • Best Novels
  • Premer Golpo Somogro
  • Odvut Sob Uponnas
  • Nirbachito Kishor Uponnas
  • Bhoot Samogro
  • Nirbachito Golpo
  • Golpo Samogro
  • Moktijoddher Uponnas Samogro
  • Chhotoder Sera Golpo

Filmography (as Director)

Television drama

Books in English translation

  • 1971
  • Gouripur Junction (2008)
Jahanara Imam (Bengali: জাহানারা ইমাম) (1929—1994)

  • Anya Jiban (1985) (Other life)
  • Ekattorer Dingulee (1986) (The days of 1971)
  • Jiban Mrityu (1988) (Life and death)
  • Buker Bhitare Agun (1990) (Fire in my heart)
  • Nataker Abasan (1990) (End of drama)
  • Dui Meru (1990) (Two poles)
  • Cancer-er Sange Bosobas (1991) (Living with cancer)
  • Prabaser Dinalipi (1992) (Life abroad)
  • Early in her career, Jahanara Imam also translated several books from English into Bengali, including some of the popular "Little House" books by Laura Ingalls Wilder.

Jahir Raihan (Bengali: জহির রায়হান) (1935-1972?)

Books

  • Surya Grahan (The eclipse), 1954
  • Shesh Bikeler Meye (The Girl from the Afternoon)
  • Hajar Bachhar Dhare (Through Thousand Years)
  • Arek Falgun (Another Falgun Day), based on the Language Movement of 1952
  • Baraf Gala Nadi (The River of Icy Waters)
  • Ar Kata Din (For How Long)
  • Koyekti Mrittu (A Few Deaths)
  • Trishna (Thirst)

Movies and documentaries

  • Kokhono Asheni, 1961 (his first film as director)
  • Sonar Kajol, 1962 (jointly directed with Kolim Sharafi)
  • Kancher Deyal, 1963
  • Sangam, 1964 (the first colour film made in Pakistan)
  • Bahana, 1965
  • Behula, 1966
  • Anowara, 1966
  • Dui Bhai, 1968
  • Jibon Theke Neya, 1969
  • Let There Be Light

Documentary Films

  • "Stop Genocide", Documentary on the genocide by Pakistani Army in the Bangladesh Liberation War, 1971
  • "Birth of A Nation"
  • "Liberation Fighters"(Production)
  • "Innocent Milions"(Production)
Jasim Uddin (Jasimuddin) (Bangla: জসীমউদ্দীন) (full name Jasimuddin Mollah) (1903-1976)

Major works

  • Rakhali (Shepherd), (1927)
  • Nokshi Kanthar Maath (1929)
  • Sojan Badiyar Ghat (1933)
  • Ranila Nayer Majhi (1935)
  • Matir Kanna (1951)
  • Suchayani (1961)
  • Padma Nadir Deshe (1969)
  • Bhayabaha Sei Dingulite (1962)
  • Padmapar (1950)
  • Beder Meye (1951)
  • Pallibodhu (1956)
  • Gramer Maya (1959)
  • Thakur Barir Anginay (1961)
  • Germanir Shahare Bandare (1975)
  • Smaraner Sarani Bahi (1978)
  • Bangalir Hasir Galpa(Part 1 & 2)
  • Dalim Kumar
  • Boba Kahini (1964)
  • Field of the Embroidered Quilt (Nokshi Kanthar Maath's English version)
Kaykobad (Bangla: কায়কোবাদ) (also spelt Kaikobad) or Mohakobi Kaykobad [Kaykobad the great poet]) pen name of the poet Kazem Ali Quereshi (1857-1951), poet

Works

Kaikobad revealed his poetic genius early. His Birahabilap was published in 1870, when he was about thirteen. Kaikobad was influenced by the epics written by hemchandra banerjee and nabinchandra sen and, in 1904, published Mahashmashan (The Great Crematorium), based on the Third Panipat War. The epic, which shows the destructive nature of war in both victory and defeat, is considered his masterpiece.

Kaikobad's other works include Kusumakanan (1873), Ashrumala (1895), Shivamandir (1922), Amiyadhara (1923), Shmashanabhasma (1924) and Maharram Sharif (1932). His Premer Phul (1970), Premer Vani (1970), Prem Parijat (1970), Mandakini Dhara (1971) and Gauchh Paker Premer Kunja (1979) were published posthumously. The Bangla Academy published his complete works as Kaikobad Rachanabali (Writings of Kaikobad) in three volumes (1994-95).

Kaikobad's literary inspiration derived from his desire to make the backward Muslims aware of their rich tradition and heritage and thereby help restore their glory. However, he also wrote on religious issues of both Hindus and Muslims. For his literary achievements, the Nikhil Bharat Sahitya Sangha awarded him the titles of 'Kavyabhusan', 'Vidyabhusan' and 'Sahityaratna'. He died on 21 July 1951 and was buried at the Azimpur Graveyard in Dhaka.


Michael Madhusudan Dutt (Bengali: মাইকেল মধুসূদন দত্ত Maikel Modhushudôn Dôtto) born Madhusudan Dutt (Datta), (1824-1873), poet and dramatist


Major works

  • Tilottama, 1860
  • Meghnad Badh Kabya (Ballad of Meghnadh's demise), 1861
  • Ratnavali

Work with the Sonnet

He dedicated his first sonnet to his friend Rajnarayan Basu, along with a letter which in which he wrote:

"What say you to this, my good friend? In my humble opinion, if cultivated by men of genius, our sonnet in time would rival the Italian."

When Madhusudan later stayed in Versailles, France, the sixth centenary of the Italian poet Dante Alighieri was being celebrated all over Europe. He composed a poem in memory of the immortal poet and translated it into French and Italian and sent it to the court of the king of Italy. Victor Emmanuel II, the then monarch, was enamored of the poem and wrote back to the poet:

"It will be a ring which will connect the Orient with the Occident."

Work in Blank Verse

Sharmistha (spelt as Sermista in English) was Madhusudan's first attempt at blank verse in Bengali literature. Sir Ashutosh Mukherjee, while paying a glowing tribute to Madhusudan's blank verse, observed:

"As long as the Bengali race and Bengali literature would exist, the sweet lyre of Madhusudan would never cease playing."

He further added:

"Ordinarily, reading of poetry causes a soporific effect, but the intoxicating vigour of Madhusudan's poems makes even a sick man sit up on his bed."

In his The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, Nirad C. Chaudhuri has remarked that during his childhood days in Kishoreganj, a common standard for testing the level of erudition in the Bengali language during family gatherings (like for example, testing the vocabulary stock of a would-be bridegroom as a way of teasing him) was the ability to pronounce and recite the poetry of Dutt, without the trace of an accent.

In France

In his trip to Versailles, France during the 1860s, Madhusudan had to suffer the ignominy of penury and destitution. His friends back home, who had inspired him to cross the ocean in search of recognition, started ignoring him altogether. Perhaps his choice of a lavish lifestyle, coupled with a big ego that was openly hostile to native tradition, was partly to blame for his financial ruin. Except for a very few well-wishers, he had to remain satisfied with many fair-weather friends. It may be argued, not without some obvious irony that during those days, his life oscillated, as it were, between the Scylla of stark poverty and the Charybdis of innumerable loans. He was head over heels in debt. As he was not in a position to clear off his debts, he was very often threatened by imprisonment. Dutt was able to return home only due to the munificent generosity of Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. For this, Dutt was to regard Vidyasagar as Dayar Sagar (meaning the ocean of kindness) for as long as he lived. Madhusudan had cut off all connections with his parents, relatives and at times even with his closest friends, who more often than not were wont to regard him as an iconoclast and an outcast. It was during the course of his sojourn in Europe that Madhusudan then realized his true identity. Perhaps for the first time in his life, he became aware of the colour of his skin and his native language. What he wrote to his friend Gour Bysack from France neatly sums up his eternal dilemma:

If there be any one among us anxious to leave a name behind him, and not pass away into oblivion like a brute, let him devote himself to his mother-tongue. That is his legitimate sphere his proper element.

Marriage and Relationships

One of the reasons for his decision to leave the religion of his family was his refusal to enter into an arranged marriage that his father had decided for him. He had no respect for that tradition and wanted to break free from the confines of caste-based endogamous marriage. His knowledge of the European tradition convinced him of the superiority of marriages made by mutual consent (or love marriages).

Madhusudan married twice. When he was in Madras, he married Rebecca Mactavys. Thru Rebecca, he had four children. Madhusudan wrote to Gour in December 1855:

Yes, dearest Gour, I have a fine English Wife and four children.

Michael returned from Madras to Calcutta in February 1856, after his father's death. Michael married a French woman named Henrietta Sophia White. His second marriage was to last till the end of his life. From his second marriage, he had four children; two sons, one daughter, and a stillborn child.


The tennis player Leander Paes is a direct descendant.


Mir Mosharraf Hossain (Bangla: মীর মশাররফ হোসেন) (1847-1912)

Works

Mir Mosarraf Hossain is the first modern Muslim Bengali writer. He wrote more than 35 books.

His literary works were included in the curriculum of school level, secondary, higher secondary and graduation level Bengali Literature in Bangladesh.

Novel

Play

  • Jamidar Darpan (1873)
  • Bosontokumari Natok (1873)

Poetry

  • Gorai Bridge or Gouri Setu (1873)

Essay

  • Gojibon

Autobiographical

  • Amar Jiboni (autobiography)
  • Bibi Kulsum

..............................

  • Gazi Miar Bostani
  • Bajimat
  • Bibi Khodejar Bibaho
  • Hazrart Umarer Dharmo Jibon Labh
  • Musolmaner Bangla Shikhya-1
  • Musolmaner Bangla Shikhya-2
Shamsur Rahman (Bangla: শামসুর রাহমান Shamsur Rŭhman) (1929–2006), poet, columnist and journalist

Poetry

  • Prothom Gan Ditio Mrittur Age (1960)
  • Roudro Korotite (1963)
  • Biddhosto Nilima (1967)
  • Niralokay Dibboroth (1968)
  • Neej Bashbhumay (1970)
  • Bondi Shibir Theke (1972)
  • Dusshomoyer Mukhomukhi (1973)
  • Firiay Nao Ghatok Kata (1974)
  • Adigonto Nogno Pododhoni (1974)
  • Ak Dhoroner Ohongkar (1975)
  • Ami Onahari (1976)
  • Bangladesh Shopno Dakhay (1977)
  • Protidin Ghorhin Ghore (1978)
  • Ekaruser Akash (1982)
  • Udbhot Uter Pithe Cholche Shodesh (1983)
  • Nayoker Chaya (1983)
  • Amar Kono Tara Nei (1984)
  • Je Ondho Shundori Kade (1984)
  • Astray Amar Bishshash Nei (1985)
  • Homerer Shopnomoy Hat (1985)
  • Shironam Mone Pore Na (1985)
  • Icchay Hoy Ektu Darai (1985)
  • Dhulay Goray Shirostran (1985)
  • Deshodrohi Hote Icchay Kore (1986)
  • Tableay Applegulo Heshe Othay (1986)
  • Obirol Jolahromi (1986)
  • Amra Kojon Shongi (1986)
  • Jhorna Amar Angulay (1987)
  • Shopnera Dukray Othay Barbar (1987)
  • Khub Beshi Valo Thakte Nei (1987)
  • Moncher Majhkhanay (1988)
  • Buj Tar Bangladesher Hridoy (1988)
  • Matal Hrittik
  • Hridoy Amar Prithibir Alo (1989)
  • Shay Ak Porobashay(1990)
  • Grihojudder Agae(1990)
  • Khondito Gourob(1992)
  • Dhongsher Kinare Bashay(1992)
  • Akash Ashbe Neme(1994)
  • Uzar Baganay(1995)
  • Asho Kokil Asho Shornochapa
  • Manob Hridoy Naibeddo Shajai
  • Hemonto Shondhay Kichukal(1997)
  • Chayagoner Shonge Kichukkhon
  • Meghlokay Monoz(1998)
  • Shoundorjo Amar Ghore(1998)
  • Ruper Probale Dogdho Shondha(1998)
  • Tukro Kichu Shonglaper Shako(1998)
  • Shopno O Dushshopnay Bachay Achi(1999)
  • Nokkhotro Bajate Bajate(2000)
  • Shuni Hridoyer Dhoni(2000)
  • Hridopodmay Jotsna Dolay(2001)
  • Bhognostupay Golaper Hashi(2002)
  • Bhangachora Chand Mukh Kalo Kore Dhukchay(2003)
  • Ak Phota kemon Onol(1986)
  • Horiner Har(1993)
  • Gontobbo Nai Ba Thakuk(2004)
  • Krishnopokkhay Purnimar Dikay(2004)
  • Gorostanay Kokiler Korun Aaobhan(2005)
  • Andhokar Theke Aloy(2006)
  • Na Bastob Na Dushshopno(2006)

Short Stories

  • Shamsur Rahmaner Golpo

Novels

  • Octopas(1983)
  • Adbhut Adhar Ak(1985)
  • Niyoto Montaz(1985)
  • Elo Je Abelzxzxay(1994)

Children's Literature

  • Alating Belating(1974)
  • Dhan Bhanle Kuro Debo(1977)
  • Golap Phote Khukir Hatay(1977)
  • Rongdhonur Shako(1994)
  • Lal Fulkir Chora(1995)
  • Noyonar Jonno(1997)
  • Amer Kuri Jamer Kuri(2004)
  • Noyonar Jonno(2005)

Autobiography

  • Kaaler Dhuloy Lekha
  • Smritir Shohor

Collected Columns

  • Akanto Bhabna

Poems in Translation

  • Robert Froster Kobita(1966)
  • Robert Froster Nirbachito Kobita(1968)
  • Khawaja Farider Kobita(1968)

Drama in Translation

Others

  • Uponnyash Shomogro
  • Noyonar Uddeshe Golap
  • Kobitar Shather Gerostali
  • Gorosthane Kokiler Korun Ahban
  • Nirbachito[SR] 100 Kobita
  • Noyonar Jonno Ekti Golap
  • Shera Shamsur Rahman
  • Rongdhonur Sako
  • Shamsur Rahman-er Sreshtha Kobita (1976)
  • Premer Kobita (1981)
  • Shamsur Rahmaner Sreshtho Kobita (from Kolkata) (1985)
  • Shamsur Rahmaner Rajnaitik Kobita (1988)
  • Shamsur Rahmaner Premer Kobita (1993)
  • Shonirbachito Premer Kobita (1993)
  • Nirbachito Chora O Kobita (1996)
  • Kabbyashombhar (1996)
  • Chorashomogro (1998)
  • Prem O Prokitir Kobita (2004)
  • Shera Shamsur Rahman (2004)
  • Shamsur Rahman Kobita Shongroho (2005)
  • Shamsur Rahman Goddo Shongroho (2005)
  • Kobita Shomogro Ak (2005)
  • Kobtia Shomogro Dui (2006)
Sufia Kamal (Bangla: সুফিয়া কামাল) (1911-1999), poet, writer, organizer, feminist and activist

Works

  • Mrttikar Ghran (The Fragrance of Earth)
  • Ekattarer Diary (Diary of '71)
  • Benibinyas Samay To Ar Nei (No More Time for Braiding Your Hair)
  • Ekale Amader Kal (In This Time, Our Time)
Rabindranath Tagore (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর (1861–1941), poet, Brahmo religionist, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer; winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature

Works

Tagore's Bengali-language initials are worked into this "Ra-Tha" wooden seal, which bears close stylistic similarity to designs used in traditional Haida carvings. Tagore often embellished his manuscripts with such art. (Dyson 2001)

Tagore's literary reputation is disproportionately influenced by regard for his poetry; however, he also wrote novels, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas, and thousands of songs. Of Tagore's prose, his short stories are perhaps most highly regarded; indeed, he is credited with originating the Bengali-language version of the genre. His works are frequently noted for their rhythmic, optimistic, and lyrical nature. Such stories mostly borrow from deceptively simple subject matter: the lives of ordinary people.

Novels and non-fiction

Tagore wrote eight novels and four novellas, including Chaturanga, Shesher Kobita, Char Odhay, and Noukadubi. Ghare Baire (The Home and the World)—through the lens of the idealistic zamindar protagonist Nikhil—excoriates rising Indian nationalism, terrorism, and religious zeal in the Swadeshi movement; a frank expression of Tagore's conflicted sentiments, it emerged out of a 1914 bout of depression. Indeed, the novel bleakly ends with Hindu-Muslim sectarian violence and Nikhil's being (probably mortally) wounded.[51] In some sense, Gora shares the same theme, raising controversial questions regarding the Indian identity. As with Ghore Baire, matters of self-identity (jāti), personal freedom, and religion are developed in the context of a family story and love triangle.[52] Another powerful story is Jogajog (Relationships), where the heroine Kumudini—bound by the ideals of Shiva-Sati, exemplified by Dākshāyani—is torn between her pity for the sinking fortunes of her progressive and compassionate elder brother and his foil: her exploitative, rakish, and patriarchical husband. In it, Tagore demonstrates his feminist leanings, using pathos to depict the plight and ultimate demise of Bengali women trapped by pregnancy, duty, and family honour; simultaneously, he treats the decline of Bengal's landed oligarchy.[53]

Other novels were more uplifting: Shesher Kobita (translated twice—Last Poem and Farewell Song) is his most lyrical novel, with poems and rhythmic passages written by the main character (a poet). It also contains elements of satire and postmodernism; stock characters gleefully attack the reputation of an old, outmoded, oppressively renowned poet who, incidentally, goes by the name of Rabindranath Tagore. Though his novels remain among the least-appreciated of his works, they have been given renewed attention via film adaptations by such directors as Satyajit Ray; these include Chokher Bali and Ghare Baire; many have soundtracks featuring selections from Tagore's own Rabindra sangeet. Tagore wrote many non-fiction books, writing on topics ranging from Indian history to linguistics. Aside from autobiographical works, his travelogues, essays, and lectures were compiled into several volumes, including Europe Jatrir Patro (Letters from Europe) and Manusher Dhormo (The Religion of Man).

Music and artwork

"Dancing Girl", an undated ink-on-paper piece by Tagore.

Tagore was a prolific musician and painter, writing around 2,230 songs. They comprise rabindrasangit (Bengali: রবীন্দ্র সংগীত—"Tagore Song"), now an integral part of Bengali culture. Tagore's music is inseparable from his literature, most of which—poems or parts of novels, stories, or plays alike—became lyrics for his songs. Primarily influenced by the thumri style of Hindustani classical music, they ran the entire gamut of human emotion, ranging from his early dirge-like Brahmo devotional hymns to quasi-erotic compositions.[54] They emulated the tonal color of classical ragas to varying extents. Though at times his songs mimicked a given raga's melody and rhythm faithfully, he also blended elements of different ragas to create innovative works.[55]

For Bengalis, their appeal, stemming from the combination of emotive strength and beauty described as surpassing even Tagore's poetry, was such that the Modern Review observed that "[t]here is in Bengal no cultured home where Rabindranath's songs are not sung or at least attempted to be sung ... Even illiterate villagers sing his songs". Music critic Arthur Strangways of The Observer first introduced non-Bengalis to rabindrasangeet with his book The Music of Hindostan, which described it as a "vehicle of a personality ... [that] go behind this or that system of music to that beauty of sound which all systems put out their hands to seize."[56] Among them are Bangladesh's national anthem Amar Shonar Bangla (Bengali: আমার সোনার বাঙলা) and India's national anthem Jana Gana Mana (Bengali: জন গণ মন); Tagore thus became the only person ever to have written the national anthems of two nations. In turn, rabindrasangeet influenced the styles of such musicians as sitar maestro Vilayat Khan, and the sarodiyas Buddhadev Dasgupta and Amjad Ali Khan.[55]

Much of Tagore's artwork dabbled in primitivism, including this pastel-coloured rendition of a Malanggan mask from northern New Ireland.

At age sixty, Tagore took up drawing and painting; successful exhibitions of his many works—which made a debut appearance in Paris upon encouragement by artists he met in the south of France[57]—were held throughout Europe. Tagore—who likely exhibited protanopia ("color blindness"), or partial lack of (red-green, in Tagore's case) colour discernment—painted in a style characterised by peculiarities in aesthetics and colouring schemes. Nevertheless, Tagore took to emulating numerous styles, including that of craftwork by the Malanggan people of northern New Ireland, Haida carvings from the west coast of Canada (British Columbia), and woodcuts by Max Pechstein.[58] Tagore also had an artist's eye for his own handwriting, embellishing the scribbles, cross-outs, and word layouts in his manuscripts with simple artistic leitmotifs, including simple rhythmic designs.

Theatrical pieces

Tagore's experience in theatre began at age sixteen, when he played the leading role in his brother Jyotirindranath's adaptation of Molière's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. At age twenty, he wrote his first drama-opera—Valmiki Pratibha (The Genius of Valmiki)—which describes how the bandit Valmiki reforms his ethos, is blessed by Saraswati, and composes the Rāmāyana.[59] Through it, Tagore vigorously explores a wide range of dramatic styles and emotions, including usage of revamped kirtans and adaptation of traditional English and Irish folk melodies as drinking songs.[60] Another notable play, Dak Ghar (The Post Office), describes how a child—striving to escape his stuffy confines—ultimately "fall[s] asleep" (which suggests his physical death). A story with worldwide appeal (it received rave reviews in Europe), Dak Ghar dealt with death as, in Tagore's words, "spiritual freedom" from "the world of hoarded wealth and certified creeds".[61][62] During World War II, Polish doctor and educator Janusz Korczak selected "The Post Office" as the play the orphans in his care in the Warsaw Ghetto would perform. This occurred on July 18, 1942, less than three weeks before they were to be deported to the Treblinka death camp. According to his main English-language biographer, Betty Jean Lifton, in her book The King of Children, Dr. Korszak thought a great deal about whether one should be able to determine when and how to die. He may have been trying to find a way for the children in his orphanage to accept death.

His other works—emphasizing fusion of lyrical flow and emotional rhythm tightly focused on a core idea—were unlike previous Bengali dramas. His works sought to articulate, in Tagore's words, "the play of feeling and not of action". In 1890 he wrote Visarjan (Sacrifice), regarded as his finest drama.[59] The Bengali-language originals included intricate subplots and extended monologues. Later, his dramas probed more philosophical and allegorical themes; these included Dak Ghar. Another is Tagore's Chandalika (Untouchable Girl), which was modeled on an ancient Buddhist legend describing how Ananda—the Gautama Buddha's disciple—asks water of an Adivasi ("untouchable") girl.[63] Lastly, among his most famous dramas is Raktakaravi (Red Oleanders), which tells of a kleptocratic king who enriches himself by forcing his subjects to mine. The heroine, Nandini, eventually rallies the common people to destroy these symbols of subjugation. Tagore's other plays include Chitrangada, Raja, and Mayar Khela. Dance dramas based on Tagore's plays are commonly referred to as rabindra nritya natyas.

Short stories

A drawing by Nandalall Bose illustrating Tagore's short story "The Hero", an English-language translation of which appeared in the 1913 Macmillan publication of Tagore's The Crescent Moon.

Tagore's "Sadhana" period, comprising the four years from 1891 to 1895, was named for one of Tagore’s magazines. This period was among Tagore's most fecund, yielding more than half the stories contained in the three-volume Galpaguchchha, which itself is a collection of eighty-four stories.[9] Such stories usually showcase Tagore’s reflections upon his surroundings, on modern and fashionable ideas, and on interesting mind puzzles (which Tagore was fond of testing his intellect with). Tagore typically associated his earliest stories (such as those of the "Sadhana" period) with an exuberance of vitality and spontaneity; these characteristics were intimately connected with Tagore’s life in the common villages of, among others, Patisar, Shajadpur, and Shilaida while managing the Tagore family’s vast landholdings.[9] There, he beheld the lives of India’s poor and common people; Tagore thereby took to examining their lives with a penetrative depth and feeling that was singular in Indian literature up to that point.[64]

In "The Fruitseller from Kabul", Tagore speaks in first person as town-dweller and novelist who chances upon the Afghani seller. He attempts to distil the sense of longing felt by those long trapped in the mundane and hardscrabble confines of Indian urban life, giving play to dreams of a different existence in the distant and wild mountains: "There were autumn mornings, the time of year when kings of old went forth to conquest; and I, never stirring from my little corner in Calcutta, would let my mind wander over the whole world. At the very name of another country, my heart would go out to it ... I would fall to weaving a network of dreams: the mountains, the glens, the forest .... ".[65] Many of the other Galpaguchchha stories were written in Tagore’s Sabuj Patra period (1914–1917; also named for one of Tagore's magazines).[9]

A 1913 illustration by Asit Kumar Haldar accompanying "The Beginning", a prose-poem appearing in Tagore's The Crescent Moon.

Tagore's Golpoguchchho (Bunch of Stories) remains among Bengali literature's most popular fictional works, providing subject matter for many successful films and theatrical plays. Satyajit Ray's film Charulata was based upon Tagore's controversial novella, Nastanirh (The Broken Nest). In Atithi (also made into a film), the young Brahmin boy Tarapada shares a boat ride with a village zamindar. The boy reveals that he has run away from home, only to wander around ever since. Taking pity, the zamindar adopts him and ultimately arranges his marriage to the zamindar's own daughter. However, the night before the wedding, Tarapada runs off—again. Strir Patra (The Letter from the Wife) is among Bengali literature's earliest depictions of the bold emancipation of women. The heroine Mrinal, the wife of a typical patriarchical Bengali middle class man, writes a letter while she is traveling (which constitutes the whole story). It details the pettiness of her life and struggles; she finally declares that she will not return to her husband's home with the statement Amio bachbo. Ei bachlum ("And I shall live. Here, I live").

In Haimanti, Tagore takes on the institution of Hindu marriage, describing the dismal lifelessness of married Bengali women, hypocrisies plaguing the Indian middle classes, and how Haimanti, a sensitive young woman, must—due to her sensitiveness and free spirit—sacrifice her life. In the last passage, Tagore directly attacks the Hindu custom of glorifying Sita's attempted self-immolation as a means of appeasing her husband Rama's doubts. Tagore also examines Hindu-Muslim tensions in Musalmani Didi, which in many ways embodies the essence of Tagore's humanism. On the other hand, Darpaharan exhibits Tagore's self-consciousness, describing a young man harboring literary ambitions. Though he loves his wife, he wishes to stifle her own literary career, deeming it unfeminine. Tagore himself, in his youth, seems to have harbored similar ideas about women. Darpaharan depicts the final humbling of the man via his acceptance of his wife's talents. As many other Tagore stories, Jibito o Mrito provides the Bengalis with one of their more widely used epigrams: Kadombini moriya proman korilo she more nai ("Kadombini died, thereby proved that she hadn't").

Poetry

Bāul folk singers in Santiniketan during the annual Holi festival.

Tagore's poetry—which varied in style from classical formalism to the comic, visionary, and ecstatic—proceeds out a lineage established by 15th- and 16th-century Vaiṣṇava poets. Tagore was also influenced by the mysticism of the rishi-authors who—including Vyasa—wrote the Upanishads, the Bhakta-Sufi mystic Kabir, and Ramprasad.[66] Yet Tagore's poetry became most innovative and mature after his exposure to rural Bengal's folk music, which included ballads sung by Bāul folk singers—especially the bard Lālan Śāh.[67][68] These—which were rediscovered and popularised by Tagore—resemble 19th-century Kartābhajā hymns that emphasize inward divinity and rebellion against religious and social orthodoxy.[69][70] During his Shilaidaha years, his poems took on a lyrical quality, speaking via the maner manus (the Bāuls' "man within the heart") or meditating upon the jivan devata ("living God within"). This figure thus sought connection with divinity through appeal to nature and the emotional interplay of human drama. Tagore used such techniques in his Bhānusiṃha poems (which chronicle the romance between Radha and Krishna), which he repeatedly revised over the course of seventy years.[71][72]

Later, Tagore responded to the (mostly) crude emergence of modernism and realism in Bengali literature by writing experimental works in the 1930s.[73] Examples works include Africa and Camalia, which are among the better known of his latter poems. He also occasionally wrote poems using Shadhu Bhasha (a Sanskritised dialect of Bengali); later, he began using Cholti Bhasha (a more popular dialect). Other notable works include Manasi, Sonar Tori (Golden Boat), Balaka (Wild Geese—the title being a metaphor for migrating souls),[74] and Purobi. Sonar Tori's most famous poem—dealing with the ephemeral nature of life and achievement—goes by the same name; it ends with the haunting phrase"Shunno nodir tire rohinu poŗi / Jaha chhilo loe gêlo shonar tori"—"all I had achieved was carried off on the golden boat—only I was left behind."). Internationally, Gitanjali (Bengali: {{{1}}}) is Tagore's best-known collection, winning him his Nobel Prize.[75] Song VII (127) of Gitanjali:

Title page of the 1913 Macmillan edition of Tagore's Gitanjali.
আমার এ গান ছেড়েছে তার সকল অলংকার,
তোমার কাছে রাখে নি আর সাজের অহংকার।
অলংকার যে মাঝে পড়ে মিলনেতে আড়াল করে,
তোমার কথা ঢাকে যে তার মুখর ঝংকার।


তোমার কাছে খাটে না মোর কবির গর্ব করা,
মহাকবি তোমার পায়ে দিতে যে চাই ধরা।
জীবন লয়ে যতন করি যদি সরল বাঁশি গড়ি,
আপন সুরে দিবে ভরি সকল ছিদ্র তার।
Amar e gan chheŗechhe tar shôkol ôlongkar
Tomar kachhe rakhe ni ar shajer ôhongkar
Ôlongkar je majhe pôŗe milônete aŗal kôre,
Tomar kôtha đhake je tar mukhôro jhôngkar.


Tomar kachhe khaţe na mor kobir gôrbo kôra,
Môhakobi, tomar paee dite chai je dhôra.
Jibon loe jôton kori jodi shôrol bãshi goŗi,
Apon shure dibe bhori sôkol chhidro tar.

Free-verse translation by Tagore (Gitanjali, verse VII):[76]